It happens sometimes that I'm playing around with web server configurations for a website of mine, and I want to temporarily remove the SSL certificate settings. This should be no problem. However, Chrome (and Firefox too for that matter) doesn't like this. Once you've approached your domain using HTTPS, it will keep redirecting you from regular HTTP, regardless of your web server configuration. This makes the website unreachable, since it no longer has a certificate for the time being.
To fix this, one needs to dig into some slightly more obscure browser settings. For Chrome, navigate to chrome://net-internals. Select 'Domain Security Policy'. At the bottom, under 'Delete domain security policies', enter the name of your domain and press 'Delete'.
Additionally, you need to remove your browser history. At first I only removed by browsing history and cookies, but it's also important you remove cached images and files. Once you do this, approaching the web page using regular HTTP should work again.